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The bromine industry is about one-hundredth the size of the chlorine industry. Laboratory production is unnecessary because bromine is commercially available and has a long shelf life.
A wide variety of organobromine compounds are used in industry. Some are prepared from bromine and others are prepared from hydrogen bromide , which is obtained by burning hydrogen in bromine.
Brominated flame retardants represent a commodity of growing importance, and make up the largest commercial use of bromine.
When the brominated material burns, the flame retardant produces hydrobromic acid which interferes in the radical chain reaction of the oxidation reaction of the fire.
The mechanism is that the highly reactive hydrogen radicals, oxygen radicals, and hydroxy radicals react with hydrobromic acid to form less reactive bromine radicals i.
Bromine atoms may also react directly with other radicals to help terminate the free radical chain-reactions that characterise combustion.
To make brominated polymers and plastics, bromine-containing compounds can be incorporated into the polymer during polymerisation. One method is to include a relatively small amount of brominated monomer during the polymerisation process.
For example, vinyl bromide can be used in the production of polyethylene , polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene.
Specific highly brominated molecules can also be added that participate in the polymerisation process For example, tetrabromobisphenol A can be added to polyesters or epoxy resins, where it becomes part of the polymer.
Epoxies used in printed circuit boards are normally made from such flame retardant resins , indicated by the FR in the abbreviation of the products FR-4 and FR In some cases the bromine containing compound may be added after polymerisation.
For example, decabromodiphenyl ether can be added to the final polymers. A number of gaseous or highly volatile brominated halomethane compounds are non-toxic and make superior fire suppressant agents by this same mechanism, and are particular effective in enclosed spaces such as submarines, airplanes, and spacecraft.
However, they are expensive and their production and use has been greatly curtailed due to their effect as ozone-depleting agents. They are no longer used in routine fire extinguishers, but retain niche uses in aerospace and military automatic fire-suppression applications.
Silver bromide is used, either alone or in combination with silver chloride and silver iodide , as the light sensitive constituent of photographic emulsions.
Ethylene bromide was an additive in gasolines containing lead anti- engine knocking agents. It scavenges lead by forming volatile lead bromide, which is exhausted from the engine.
This application has declined since the s due to environmental regulations see below. Poisonous bromomethane was widely used as pesticide to fumigate soil and to fumigate housing, by the tenting method.
Ethylene bromide was similarly used. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer scheduled the phase out for the ozone depleting chemical by , and organobromide pesticides are no longer used in housing fumigation they have been replaced by such compounds as sulfuryl fluoride , which contain neither the chlorine or bromine organics which harm ozone.
Before the Montreal protocol in for example an estimated 35, tonnes of the chemical were used to control nematodes , fungi , weeds and other soil-borne diseases.
In pharmacology , inorganic bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide , were frequently used as general sedatives in the 19th and early 20th century.
Bromides in the form of simple salts are still used as anticonvulsants in both veterinary and human medicine, although the latter use varies from country to country.
For example, the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA does not approve bromide for the treatment of any disease, and it was removed from over-the-counter sedative products like Bromo-Seltzer , in Otherwise, organobromine compounds are rarely pharmaceutically useful, in contrast to the situation for organofluorine compounds.
Several drugs are produced as the bromide or equivalents, hydrobromide salts, but in such cases bromide serves as an innocuous counterion of no biological significance.
Other uses of organobromine compounds include high-density drilling fluids, dyes such as Tyrian purple and the indicator bromothymol blue , and pharmaceuticals.
Bromine itself, as well as some of its compounds, are used in water treatment, and is the precursor of a variety of inorganic compounds with an enormous number of applications e.
A study suggests that bromine in the form of bromide ion is a necessary cofactor in the biosynthesis of collagen IV , making the element essential to basement membrane architecture and tissue development in animals.
For example, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 , formed by the eosinophil , and either chloride or bromide ions, eosinophil peroxidase provides a potent mechanism by which eosinophils kill multicellular parasites such as, for example, the nematode worms involved in filariasis and some bacteria such as tuberculosis bacteria.
Eosinophil peroxidase is a haloperoxidase that preferentially uses bromide over chloride for this purpose, generating hypobromite hypobromous acid , although the use of chloride is possible.
More than such organobromine compounds were identified by The most abundant is methyl bromide CH 3 Br , of which an estimated 56, tonnes is produced by marine algae each year.
Bromide has an elimination half-life of 9 to 12 days, which can lead to excessive accumulation. Doses of 0. While significant and sometimes serious disturbances occur to neurologic, psychiatric, dermatological, and gastrointestinal functions, death from bromism is rare.
Elemental bromine is toxic and causes chemical burns on human flesh. Inhaling bromine gas results in similar irritation of the respiratory tract, causing coughing, choking, and shortness of breath, and death if inhaled in large enough amounts.
Chronic exposure may lead to frequent bronchial infections and a general deterioration of health. As a strong oxidising agent, bromine is incompatible with most organic and inorganic compounds.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of bromine.
Main article: Organobromine compound. Main articles: Vanadium bromoperoxidase and Bromism. GHS hazard statements. GHS precautionary statements.
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Mercury element. Reactive nonmetal. Br 2 Spectral lines of bromine. The German chemist Justus von Liebig appears to have obtained the element before Balard, but he wrongly considered it to be iodine chloride.
Some enrichment occurs in ocean water 65 parts per million by weight , in the Dead Sea approximately 5 grams per litre [0. Natural salt deposits and brines are the main sources of bromine and its compounds.
Jordan, Israel , China, and the United States led the world in bromine production in the early 21st century; other important bromine-producing countries during that period include Japan, Ukraine, and India.
Natural bromine is a mixture of two stable isotopes : bromine Of the 17 known radioactive isotope s of the element, bromine has the longest half-life 57 hours.
Free bromine is a reddish brown liquid with an appreciable vapour pressure at room temperature. Bromine vapour is amber in colour. Bromine has a pungent odour and is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system.
Exposure to concentrated bromine vapour, even for a short time, may be fatal. Like the other halogens , bromine exists as diatomic molecules in all aggregation states.
About 3. The solution is known as bromine water. Like chlorine water, it is a good oxidizing agent, and it is more useful because it does not decompose so readily.
It liberates free iodine from iodide-containing solutions and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide. Sulfurous acid is oxidized by bromine water to sulfuric acid.
In sunlight bromine water decomposes, with release of oxygen , as in the following equation:. From bromine water a hydrate a clathrate can be isolated that contains water molecules and 20 cavities capable of accommodating the bromine molecules.
Bromine dissolves in aqueous alkali hydroxide solutions, giving bromides, hypobromites, or bromates, depending on the temperature.
Bromine is readily extracted from water by organic solvents such as carbon tetrachloride , chloroform , or carbon disulfide, in which it is very soluble.
In the organic solvents it gives an orange solution. The electron affinity of bromine is high and is similar to that of chlorine. It is, however, a less powerful oxidizing agent, chiefly because of the weaker hydration of the bromide ion as compared with the chloride ion.
Similarly, a metal-bromine bond is weaker than the corresponding metal-chlorine bond, and this difference is reflected in the chemical reactivity of bromine, which lies between that of chlorine and that of iodine.
An organic bromo compound resembles the corresponding chloro derivative but is usually more dense, less volatile, less combustible, and less stable.
Bromine combines violently with the alkali metals and with phosphorus , arsenic , aluminum , and antimony but less violently with certain other metals.
Bromine displaces hydrogen from saturated hydrocarbons and adds to unsaturated hydrocarbons, though not as readily as chlorine does.
The first ionization energy of bromine is high, and compounds containing bromine in positive oxidation numbers are stabilized by appropriate ligands , mainly oxygen and fluorine.
The chief commercial source of bromine is ocean water, from which the element is extracted by means of chemical displacement oxidation by chlorine in the presence of sulfuric acid through the reaction.
The product of the reaction is a dilute solution of bromine, from which the element is removed by blowing air through it. The free bromine is then mixed with sulfur dioxide, and the mixed gases are passed up a tower down which water is trickling.Bromination often leads to Video Slots.Swf oxidation states than iodination but lower or equal Mecze Na Zywo states to chlorination. Blame it on the s". Archived from the original on 30 September Als Katharina Patrick vorwirft, dass er sich zum Schlechteren verändert hat, zieht Golden Games Casino Online zornig in den Brunnerwirt. Archived from the original on 5 January